The simplest decision model with only two alternatives, is known as Manicheanism, which is adapted byZarathustra and then taken by other organised religions. Manicheanism is the duality concept, which divides everything in the world into discrete either/or and opposite polar, such as good and evil, black and white, night and day, mind (or soul) and body, etc. This duality concept was a sufficient model of reality for those old days in order to make their world manageable and calculable. However, nowadays we know it well that everything is becoming and has a wide continuous spectrum.
There are no real opposites in nature. We have to see the world through our colorful mind's eyes; otherwise we do not understand complex ideas well.
The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century probably did more to shape life in the modern industrialised world than any event in history. Large factories with mass production create a need for a managing them effectively and efficiently.