2.1 INTRODUCTION
Linear programming is of one of the most powerful tools of management science. Linear programming (or simply LP) refers to several related mathematical techniques that are used to allocate limited resources among competing demands in an optimal way.
In general, the goal of manager decision making is to achieve some objective such as maximising profit or minimising costs.
A Linear Program (LP) is a problem that can be expressed as follows (the socalled Standard Form):
where x is the vector of variables to be solved for, A is a matrix of known coefficients, and c and b are vectors of known coefficients. The expression "cx" is called the objective function, and the equations "Ax=b" are called the constraints. All these entities must have consistent dimensions. The matrix A is generally not square, hence you don't solve an LP by just inverting A. Usually A has more columns than rows, and Ax=b is therefore quite likely to be underdetermined, leaving great latitude in the choice of x with which to minimise cx. (1.1)
2.1.1 Essential conditions
There are five conditions for linear programming to pertain.
Since its discovery in the late 1950s, linear programming has been applied to a wide variety of decision problems in business and the public sector.
2.1.2 Basic groups of applications
Product mix 1: Finding the minimumcost or maximum profit production schedule, including production rate change costs, given constraints on size of workforce and inventory levels. This type of example contains several types of products (agriculture crops, services). Each of them is characterised by different cost and profit and different demand for labour, equipment (machine hours), material, land etc. The task is to find the best combination of product according the target (target function). Generally each combination of product is possible (not all product are usually in optimal solution). If not, special constrains must be added.
Example:Product Planning
Example: Product Planning  LP Model
In fact there are more types of problem, which can be included into the basic type “Product mix” but have some special features.
Product mix 2:Finding the optimal combination of product. Each product must be processed sequentially through several machine centres, with each machine in a centre having its own cost and output characteristics.
Example: Product processing
Example: Product processing – LP model
Product mix 3: There are limited sources in different time periods and different demands. The production cost, possible sales and profit also varies by time unit (i.e. week, month).
Example deals with the formulation of a largescale or system model, designed primarily for planning the integrated activities of a business firm.
Example: Production scheduling
Example: Product processing – LP model
Warehouse problem: The manager of a warehouse buys and sells the stock of a certain commodity, seeking to maximise profit over a period of time, called the horizon. The warehouse has a fixed capacity, and there is a holding cost that increases with increasing levels of inventory held in the warehouse (this could vary period to period). The sales price and purchase costs of the commodity fluctuate. The warehouse is initially empty and is required to be empty at the end of the horizon. This is a variation of the production scheduling problem, except demand is not fixed.
Product blending: Blending problem deals with finding the optimal product mix where several products have different costs and resource requirements (e.g., finding the optimal blend of constituents for gasolines, paints, human diets, animal feeds)
Example : Blending Problem
Example : Blending Problem – LP model
Example : Blending Problem  total formulation.
Service productivity analysis: Comparing how efficiently different service outlets are using their resources compared to the best performing unit. (This approach is called data envelopment analysis).
Process control: Minimising the amount of scrap material generated by cutting steel, leather, or fabric from a roll or sheet or bar of stock material.
Example: Process control
Example: Process control – LP model
Inventory control: Finding the optimal combination of products to stock in a warehouse or store.
Following applications represents independent group of LP models and are described in the chapter transportation methods:
Distribution scheduling: Finding the optimal shipping schedule for distributing products between factories and warehouses or warehouses and retailers.
Plant location studies: Finding the optimal location of a new plant by evaluating shipping costs between alternative locations and supply and demand sources.
Materials handling: Finding the
minimumcost routings of material handling devices between departments
in a plant and of hauling materials from a supply yard to work
sites by trucks, with each truck having
different capacity and performance capabilities.
2.1.3 Formulation of Linear Programming Problems
Formulating an LP model means translating a business decision problem into LP terminology by defining variables, specifying an objective function, and writing all constraints as equalities or inequalities. This work needs creativity and experience. Basic approach and steps see examples above. The results of model formulation are not necessarily identical for all authors.
Formulating any quantitative model means selecting out the important elements from the problem and defining how these are related. There are some steps that have been found useful in formulating linear programming models. These are:
Although linear programming has proven to be a valuable tool in solving large and complex problems in business and the public sector, there are limitations mentioned above. Linear programming is not useful for problems that require integer solutions, that involve uncertainty, development in time, or that have a nonlinear objective function or constraints. These limitations indicate that linear programming cannot be applied to all problems. However, for those problems for which it is applicable, it has proven to be a useful and powerful tool.
2.2 SOLUTION
OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
Since actual linear problems may be large and complex,
sophisticated computer methods are used to solve them. But for a manager
facing a decision problem, the model solution is only a part of the answer.
Analysis using models aims to get a better understanding of the problem,
and the effect of various constraints and "what if" questions—in short,
sensitivity analysis. The insight gained is often more valuable than the
specific numerical answer. One of the advantages of linear programming
is that it is very rich in providing such sensitivity information as a
direct part of the solution. In order to understand this sensitivity analysis,
it is necessary to have some understanding of the solution process.
2.2.1 Graphical
solution
It is useful to get familiar with the graphical
method for solving LP problems first — not because this is used in practice,
but because it provides best understanding of the model and its solution.
Graphical solution is based on a geometrical representation of the feasible region and the objective function. In particular, the space to be considered is the ndimensional space with each dimension defined by one of the LP variables. The objective function will be described in this ndim space by its contour plots, i.e., the sets of points that correspond to the same objective value. To facilitate the visualisation we are restricted to the twodimensional case, i.e., to LP models with two decision variables (possibly with 3 variables in 3D graphic).
The steps of the graphical method are as follows:
1. Formulate the Problem in Mathematical Terms Example: Product planning  LP model
As mentioned above there are
Every vector of two the variables can be plotted using two points with
coordinates in a 2dimensional (planar) Cartesian system. The constraint equations are easily plotted by letting one variable equal zero and solving for the axis intercept of the other. (The inequality portions of the restrictions are disregarded for this step.)
3. Determine the Area of Feasibility
The direction of inequality signs in each conconstraint
determines the area of feasibility where a feasible solution is found.
The feasible region of a 2variables LP is depicted
by the set of points the coordinates of which satisfy all LP constraints
and the sign restrictions. If all constraints are expressed by linear inequalities,
to geometrically characterise the feasible region, we must first characterise
the set of points that constitute the solution space of each linear inequality.
Then, the LP feasible region will result from the intersection of the solution
spaces corresponding to each technological constraint.
A feasible solution or feasible point satisfies all of the constraints and any restrictions on the variables value (e.g. nonnegativities). The feasible set is a set of all feasible solutions.
The region of feasible solutions forms a convex polygon. If this condition of convexity does not exist, the problem is either incorrectly set up or not amenable to linear programming.
4. Plot the Objective Function
The objective function may be plotted by assuming some arbitrary total profit figure and then solving for the axis coordinates, as was done for the constraint equations. Other terms for the objective function, when used in this context, are the isoprofit line or equal contribution line, because it shows all possible production combinations for any given profit figure. All isoprofit lines are parallel, so that we can move it to one side to maximise the objective function or other side for minimisation.
5.Find the Optimum Point
It can be shown mathematically that the optimal
combination of decision variables is always found at an extreme point (corner
point) of the convex polygon. The number of corner points is limited (compare
with unlimited number of points of the whole polygon representing the set
of feasible solutions). We can determine which one is the optimum by either
of two approaches.
The first approach is to find the values of the various comer solutions algebraically. This entails simultaneously solving the equations of various pairs of intersecting lines and substituting the quantities of the resultant variables in the objective function.
The second and generally preferred approach entails using the objective function or isoprofit line directly to find the optimum point. The procedure involves simply drawing a straight line parallel to any arbitrarily selected initial isoprofit line so that the isoprofit line is farthest from the origin of the graph (in costminimisation problems, the objective would be to draw the line through the point closest to the origin.)
Note that all isoprofit lines have the same slope but different axis intercepts.
The profit lines of a linear programming model are always parallel.
The underlying idea is to keep ”sliding'' the isoprofit line in the direction of increasing value of the objective function, until we cross the boundary of the LP feasible region. This extreme point of the feasible region is the optimum point.
If there is a finite optimal solution for a linear programming model, an optimal solution will be a corner point.
Not all examples lead to one optimal solution. It could happen that attempting to plot the feasible region for some problem, we get no points in feasible region i.e. on the plane that satisfy all constraints, and therefore the problem is infeasible called also overconstrained problem.
If there is no point in the feasible set, there is no feasible solution of the linear programming model.
One possible reason for no feasible solution is an error in transcribing the data or inputting model. Another type of error that is harder to determine is the inclusion of reasonable constrains, but with no possibility to satisfy them all. For example, there may not be enough available capacity to satisfy all of the requirements.
In the LP modes considered above, the feasible region (if not empty) was a bounded area. For this kind of problems it is obvious that all values of the LP objective function (and therefore the optimal) are bounded.
A bounded feasible set is one which a finite numbers may be specified so that any variable value, at any point in the feasible set, is less or equal to that number.
Consider however the possibility that the feasible region is not bounded and the isoprofit line can be shifted with no limits. An unbounded feasible set is a feasible set that is not bounded. Only one variable has to be limitless for a feasible set to be unbounded. If the feasible point exists with the objective function value as favourable as desired, a model is said to have an unbounded optimal solution and the problem is called unbounded problem (usually one extreme  maximum or minimum can be found, problem is if this is not the extreme we search for). The practical interpretation of such optimal solution is the same as in the previous case i.e. there is no optimal solution and the model creator must return to the real situation and check all constrains. In the unbounded case there is probably some limitation missing, forgotten in the model formulation.
The model can have also more than one optimal solution – alternative solution. In this case the isoprofit line goes in the same direction as one of constrain line. The extreme points than is a set of points lying between two polygon corner points on this line (contour line).
If two corner points are optimal, then all of the points on the line segment connecting them are also optimal.
Note that for all examples of optimal solutions for linear programming model, there is an optimal solution in the corner point.
2.2.2 Simplex
method
The method generally used for solving linear programming
problems is called the simplex method. George Dantzig
originally developed it in 1957.
The method starts with a basic solution, then modifies this basic solution by adding and dropping a variable, always increasing profit (or reducing cost) until an optimal solutions found. It is a search process, but it turns out to be amazingly efficient in solving very big problems.
Comparing with the graphical solution it starts in one corner point (initial basic solution) that moves to another corner point with better value of target function etc. and stops in the corner with the best value of the target function (optimal solution).
The basic of the method is that the optimal solution can be found only in corner points of the feasible area (in the case of alternative optimal solutions on the
The simplex algorithm always starts from the initial simlex tableau containing the initial basic solution (basic solutions corresponds with the corner points in the graphical solutions).
The steps of the
simplex method are as follows:
1. Converting all inequalities to equation
by introducing
slack and surplus variables.
All slack and surplus variables have their interpretations (sometimes including units) as structural variables .The surplus variables are subtracted from the LHS, whereas slack variables are added. The objective function is the same as that of original model. That is, the objective function coefficient for surplus and slack variables is always zero.
Conversion of a Constrain to an = Constrain
A new variable s is introduces to allow the LHS of the converted constrain
Conversion of a constrain
to an = constrain
The amount of the LHS is larger than RHS is called
the value of surplus variable.
Consider the constrain:
2. Conversion of a Constrain with a Negative RHS
It is done by multiplying each constrain coefficient, including RHS constant by –1. If the constrain is an inequality, multiplying by –1 reverses the inequality sign (). It was verified that this manipulation gives an equivalent model.
3. Initial Solution
If we select some set of the m variables, the rest variables are equal to zero. Then we solve for these m variables and we get have a basic solution. The selected variables are called the solution variables. The variables set equal to zero are the outside variables. In the previous chapter, we found all the basic solutions for this problem are related to corner points of the graphic solution. (Recall that some of the basic solutions are infeasible, since they involve negative values for one or more of the variables.)
The model with m constrains and n variables has m solution variables and (nm) outside variables. The solution variables have columns under them containing one element with +1, and the remainder of elements 0. The 1 must be in a different row than the 1 of any other column. These columns form a diagonal of 1. If there is less than m such columns we have to add artificial variable (or variables) to get 1 element (in column with all other element equal to 0) on each line (constrain) Example with slack, surplus and artificial variables.
The artificial variable should be added to all constrains with exclusion of those where positive slack variable has been added. The initial solution is written in the initial simplex tableau. All following calculations are provided in following simplex tables.
4. Finding a New Solution
The simplex method finds a new solution
by replacing exactly one of the solution variables by one of the outside
variables. This is accomplished in three steps:
Determine the variable that has the greatest net profit per unit. This is the one with the largest positive (negative for minimisation)value in the row at the bottom of the table. The column r is marked with an arrow.
The next step is to determine which of the current solution variables is to leave the solution and be replaced by outside variable x_{r} chosen in previous step. Consider adding units of x_{r}, into the solution one at a time. At some point one of the variables initially in the solution will be driven exactly to zero, hence, changing from a solution variable to an outside variable. We need to find out which solution variable will first be driven to zero as units of x_{r} are introduced into the solution. Divide each amount in the "Solution values" (RHS) column by the amount in the comparable row of the entering x_{r} column.
Note what we have done so far in the simplex procedure. First, we identified a variable that will increase profitability and indicated that it is to be included in the next solution. Then, we guaranteed that the next solution would be a basic feasible one by identifying a variable to be removed from the solution that will keep all variable values nonnegative. The third step is to determine the new solution.
Resolving the Actual Replacement
The element in the entering x_{r} column and the leaving x_{s} row is designated the pivot element. In order to obtain a new solution containing x_{r}, this element must be converted to a +1 and the other elements in the x_{r} column converted to 0.
To convert the pivot element to + 1 requires that we divide every element in the sth row by the value of the pivot element. Recall that each row is in reality a constraint equation, and one may divide a whole equation by a constant.
The second part of the procedure is aimed at converting all the elements (except the pivot element) in the rth column to zero. This can be accomplished by multiplying the entire new sth row by the value in the x_{r} column, and subtracting the result from the old row (other than sth).
The result is a new basic solution in a second simplex table. The steps 4 should be repeated till the optimal solution is found.
5. Optimal Solution
If all the
coefficient of the row
are either zero or negative (positive for minimisation), indicating that
no variable can further increase profit if entered in the solution . Hence,
an optimal solution has been obtained and the simplex algorithm stops.The
graphical
overview or summary
of the steps of simplex method will help to understand the procedure.
Reading the optimal tableau we should learn
Another example deals with solving minimisation model.
lt should be noted that in previous problem, we were maximising an amount (profit) subject to constraints, all of which were in the form of a sum of variables equal) to or less than a constant. This is important, since certain steps in the solution process will be modified as we change the description of the problem.
This example will differ from the previous example in several respects:
1. An amount is being minimised (rather
than maximised).
2. There are three constraints  one equality
and two inequalities.
Note that one of the inequalities is in
the form of the variable being equal to or greater than a constant.
To strengthen our understanding of the
problem, we shall briefly illustrate graphic analysis and than solve the
same problem with the simplex procedure
– algebraic formulation. As in the previous example we get from the minimisation  initial tableau through recalculations to minimisation – solution.
2.2.3 Special
cases
Some special situations encountered in solving linear
programming problems are:
Multiple solutions to linear programming problems are possible. This is indicated when one of the outside variables has a value of zero in the optimal solution.
Degeneracy occurs when one or more of the solution variables equals zero.
Special Situations
Unbounded Solution
In certain situations, it is possible that the linear programming problem does not have a finite solution. For example, assume that the third simplex table appeared as shown(recalculations, Table 2). Variable x_{1} is the entering variable. Column x_{1}, has been changed so that not only is negative (as it was in Table 2) but all coefficients in the x_{1}, column are negative. ln this situation, there is no finite optimum solution. If profit was being maximised, an analogous situation would occur if thetotal were positive and all coefficients in the column were negative.
If the above situation develops, the cause will frequently be a misstated constraint or incorrect data. Business situations properly described will not usually result in an unbounded solution as illustrated above.
Multiple Solutions
There may be more than one optimal solution to a linear programming problem. In this case, two (or more) basic solutions; will have the same optimum profit (or cost).
In the optimal tableau of example minimisation – solution no; value is negative, indicating an optimum has been reached. Imagine, however, for example variable x_{4}, is not a solution variable and = 0. This indicates that variable x_{4}, can be brought into the solution without increasing or decreasing the cost. The optimal solutions lies in the corner points of feasible area and any convex combination of these corner points is an optimum solution.
Degeneracy
Recall that a basic solution to a linear programming problem with m constraints involves selecting m solution variables and then setting the remaining variables equal to zero. In general, when the equations are solved, the selected solution variables will have positive (nonzero) values. However, one or more of the solution variables may turn out to be zero. Such a situation is degenerate. There is degeneracy when there are fewer than m nonzero solution variables for m constraint equations. It is an indication that one or more of the constraint equations is redundant for the given solution.
Degeneracy results when two or more variables are tied in the selection of the leaving variable during the simplex procedure. Degeneracy is a potential problem, because it is theoretically possible for the simplex procedure to cycle back to former solutions and never reach the optimum. In actual practice, this cycling rarely occurs, and computer programs generally have no difficulty reaching the optimum even when degeneracy occurs. ln doing the simplex by hand, when a tie occurs in the leaving variable, pick one arbitrarily. If cycling occurs and a solution reappears in the tables, then go back to where the tie occurred and select one of the other tied variables.
Degeneracy also causes some problems in interpretation of linear programming results.
No Feasible Solution
The lack of a feasible solution can be detected in the simplex table. At some point in the procedure, a solution occurs that would appear to be optimal (all the coefficients in the row are nonpositive if maximising, or nonnegative if minimising). However, one of the solution variables is an artificial variable. Computer programs would stop at this point with a message that no feasible solution exists.
In a business situation, the lack of a feasible solution generally indicates an error in formulating the problem or in entering the data. If you are working some of the exercises in this book on a computer and you encounter the "no feasible solution" message, you should recheck your formulation and your data.
2.2.4 Summary
The optimal solution of an LP problem is
a corner point of the feasible region (in graphical interpretation). This
corresponds, in algebraic terms, to a basic feasible solution, containing
m basic variables (where m is the number of constraints).
Sometimes it happens that there are less than m nonzero variables in the optimal solution. This means that one or more of the basic variables just happen to turn out to be exactly zero. This is called degeneracy. Sometimes an LP problem can have more than one optimal solution. If there is a decision variable that has a zero value and also a zero reduced cost, it indicates an alternate optimum. Similarly, a constraint with zero slack (or surplus) and a zero shadow price also indicates an alternate optimum. Since the feasible area can be empty or unlimited there can be no feasible and in this case naturally no optimal solution or the optimal solution is undefined.
There are many software packages available for solving linear programming problems on personal computers. The most widely available package for optimisation, including linear programming, is Solver, which comes packaged with the Excel and Quattro Pro spreadsheets.
Using computer programmes for solving big practical examples is necessary but understanding, what takes place in the general simplex method is crucial for understanding and useful interpretation of result (optimal solution).
2.3 Sensitivity
analysis
By examining the final (optimal) simplex tableau,
we can learn a great deal. Besides showing the solution, the final tableau
provides valuable information about the resources used, the range where
the optimal decision remains unchanged, and the range where the coefficients
in the objective function do not change the optimal solution. Specifically,
it enables us to answer such questions as: Would you like to buy any more
of a resource? If so, what price should you pay? How many units should
you buy at that price? Similar questions can be answered about selling
resources; even though a resource may be currently used in making products,
at some price it is worthwhile to forgo production and sell it. These considerations
are of interest because they lead to decisions that can increase profit
or reduce cost.
Other questions are of the sort: If we change the profit per unit (by changing the coefficient in the objective function), will this change the optimal solution? This is sensitivity analysis, and refers to how much the solution changes for a small change in the objective function or, conversely, for a small change in the solution, the change that occurs in the objective function.
Other part of the sensitivity analysis deals with the impact of changes or available sources or other condition, which is expressed in the right sides of, constrains.
If there is a methodology for solving a decision model with one set of parameters, then the model can be solved again with a different set of parameters. The changes in the solution can then be evaluated based on the parameter change. This is the sensitivity analysis. In certain cases, it is more useful to calculate the amount that a parameter must change before the solution changes.
Sensitivity analysis involves :
6  7  0  0  b  
0  2  3  1  0  24  
0  2  1  0  1  16 
Table 1: Initial tableau of the example Product Planning
6  7  0  0  b  
7  0  1  1/2  1/2  4  
6  1  0  1/4  3/4  6  
0  0  2  1  64 
Table 2 : Optimal Solution of the example Product Planning
2.3.1 Economic
Interpretation of the Values
First, consider the economic interpretation of the values,
the bottom row of the simplex table. Recall that Z_{j} is the opportunity
cost of introducing one unit of variable j into the solutionthe cost of
replacing or substituting for other solution variables. Since c_{j}
is the unit profit, the value
is the net profit (profit minus opportunity cost) resulting from introducing
one unit of j into the solution.
In our example first consider the value associated with a slack variable, such as variable x_{3} in Table 2. Variable x_{3} is the slack variable associated with the first constraint, the limit on time available for machine 1. In the optimal solution in Table 2, has a value of 2, meaning that introducing one unit of x_{3 }(i.e., one hour of slack time) into the solution will decrease profit by $2. Note that introducing one unit of slack into the solution is effectively the same as reducing the capacity of machine 1 by one hour. Hence, the ; values for slack variables associated with constraints can be considered as the marginal values associated with changes in capacity on that constraint. We called these marginal values dual prices. When a decision variable is not included in the optimal solution, the value represents the cost of forcing one unit into the solution.
2.3.2 RightHand Side Ranges
The interpretation of the dual price of x_{3} in Table 2 is that one additional hour of machine time on machine 1 would be worth $2. We might ask the following question: If we could buy additional hours of machine 1 time for less than $2, could we increase our profit indefinitely by adding more hours?
We can answer this question by examining the x _{3} column in Table 2. Recall the meaning of the coefficients in the table; if we were to introduce one unit of x_{3}, it would replace 1/2 unit of x_{2}, and 1/4 unit of x_{1}, (i.e., it would actually add 1/4 unit of x_{1}).
The question posed above, then, can be answered by considering how much x_{3} can change before a change in the solution mix will occur.
If we enter positive x_{3}; into the solution, the interpretation is that additional slack hours are made available on machine 1and thus, those hours to be used for production are reduced. In the table, the process of introducing x_{3} is the same as doing an iteration in the simplex procedure with x_{3} as the entering variable. We divide the "Solution values" column by the amount in the comparable row of the x_{3} column (Table 3). The smallest nonnegative number thus obtained gives the number of units of x_{3} :
0  Solution values


7  1/2  4  8  
6  1/4  6  24  
2  64 
Table 3: Entering positive x_{3}
We can also consider adding negative x_{3}. This means that we make additional hours available on machine 1. In order to consider introducing negative x_{3} into our table, we can proceed as above, except that we must multiply all the values in the x_{3} column by ( 1) before going to the next step in the simplex procedure. Thus, we would have Table 4:
0  Solution values


7  1/2  4  8  
6  1/4  6  24  
2  64 
Table 4: Entering negative x_{3}
The two steps can be combined into one. Look at the ratios of the "Solution values" column to the slack variable column. The smallest nonnegative ratio determines the amount of decrease; the smallest (in the sense of being closest to zero) nonpositive ratio determines the amount of the increase. For purposes of this rule, a ratio of zero divided by a positive number is considered positive, and zero divided by a negative number is negative.
We have derived a range of values relative to the amount of time available on machine 1. We started out with 24 hours available. When, we found that we could take away 8 hours before the solution mix changed, or we could add 24 hours before the solution mix changed. Hence, we have a range of 16 to 48 for hours available on machine 1, over which the basic solution mix does not change. Recall that the dual price for a marginal hour of machine 1 time was $2 (the value). This value holds over the range we have just determined. In short, machine time on machine I has a value of $2 per hour over a range of available hours from 16 to 48 (assuming machine 2 hours remain fixed at 16).
Note that 16 to 48 hours is a range within which the solution mix remains the same. That is, the list of solution variables does not change. The actual solution values will change as more or less time is available on machine 1. Also, total profit will change at a rate of $2 per hour (the marginal value for x_{3}) for increments of machine 1 time.
We can do the same type of analysis on the time available on machine 2. Variable x_{4 }is the slack variable associated with machine 2. Look at the ratio of the "Solution Values" column to the slack variable column for x_{4}:
0  Solution values


7  1/2  4  8  
6  3/4  6  8  
2  64 
Table 5: Entering x_{4}
A summary of these results is shown in Table 6.
Resource  Machine hours Available  Dual price  Range over which dual price is valid  
(original RHS)  Lower Limit  Upper Limit  
Machine 1  24  2  16  48 
Machine 2  16  1  8  24 
Table 6: RHS Ranges
2.3.3 Changes in the Prices
Another major concern to managers is the sensitivity of the linear programming solution to changes in prices: that is, to changes in the perunit profits (or costs) of variables in the objective function.
In the case of variables that are not in the solution, determining this sensitivity is relatively easy. Recall that the Z_{j} measures the opportunity cost of introducing one unit of the particular variable into the solution. If the variable is not in the optimum solution, it means that its profitability (c_{j}) is not as great as the opportunity cost Z_{j} . In other words, is negative (This is true if we are maximising. If we are minimising, then the variable will come into the solution if the cost drops below Z_{j}.) To come into the solution, the profit must exceed Z_{j}. This is the upper limit before a change occurs. On the other hand, since the variable is not currently profitable enough to be in the solution, any decrease in per unit profit will not change its status.
In summary, for a variable not in the optimum solution, the price ranges are:
Current Value: c_{j}
Upper Limit: Z_{j}
Within these limits, there is no change in the optimal
solution.
Consider variable x_{1}, which had an original price of $6 and is a solution variable. We divide the coefficients of the row in Table 2 by the coefficients of the x_{1}, row This is the dual problem equivalent of dividing the "Solution values" column by the slack variable column used for righthand side ranging. Then (see Table 7), the smallest nonnegative ratio obtained determines the amount of the increase in price, and the smallest nonpositive (closest to zero) ratio determines the decrease in price (exclude thex_{1}, column from these calculations).
7  0  0  
6  0  1/4  3/4  
0  2  1  
/  8  4/3 
Table 7 : Possible changes in c_{1 }Price
The kind of information contained in sensitivity analysis is very valuable to management. The prices are usually subject to change from time to time. If a change is within the range determined by the sensitivity analysis, then there is
no effect upon the optimum solution. If the change is outside the range, a new solution is needed, and the programming problem must be resolved.
The linear programming problem is set up as a decision problem under certainty. Few problems in the real world are truly certain. Often, many factors are unknown and must be estimated using the best judgement available. The use of sensitivity analysis helps to show over what ranges the solution is and is not subject to change. As such, it is an important adjunct to the interpretation of the solution of a linear programming problem.
2.3.4 Summary
Detail examination of the optimal results including
sensitivity analysis is at least as important as the solution itself. The
final solution gives many answers useful for manager’s decision making
and represents the real power and value of LP.
Shadow prices can be useful in identifying bottlenecks or constraints that are cost and might be profitably changed. Shadow prices can also be useful in evaluating products.
The ranges, both for the RHS coefficients and for the objective function coefficients, provide important information in interpreting the LP solution. The RHS ranges determine the limits within which the shadow price holds for each constraint. The objective coefficient ranges determine limits within which the solution remains the same.
The sensitivity analysis should be included in software product used for solving LP models. The user must first know it the analysis is really available and that he or she must learn how to use and interpret the computer output.
2.4 The Dual Problem
Every linear programming problem we have solved has been of the type designated as primal, the primal being the first problem to which our attention is generally directed. Each primal problem has a companion problem called the dual. The dual has the same optimum solution as the primal, but it is derived by an alternative procedure. The analysis of this procedure may be instructive for several types of decision problems.
Frequently, the economic problem being solved as the primal involves the maximisation of an objective function (for example, profits), subject to constraints that are frequently of a physical nature (such as hours of machine time). In this type of situation, the dual involves the minimisation of total opportunity costs, subject to the opportunity cost (or equivalently, the value) of the inputs of each product being equal to or greater than the unit profit of the product.
Example : Primal Problem
1. If the objective function is maximised in the primal, the objective function of the dual is minimised. If the objective function of the primal is a profit equation, the objective function of the dual will be a cost equation.
2. The coefficients of the variables of the cost equation (the dual objective function) are the righthand side constants of the primal constraints.
The constants for the dual constraints are obtained from the profit function (the objective function) of the primal.
4. Transposing the coefficients used in the primal forms the dual constraints. The first column of A becomes the first row of A^{T}, and the second column of A becomes the second row of A^{T}.
5. If we are maximising a primal objective function and if the constraints of the primal are "less than or equal to," the constraints of the dual will be "greater than or equal to."
If this entire procedure is performed on the dual, the original (primal) problem will be obtained. Thus, the dual of the dual is the primal.
Rules for Constructing Dual Problems
These rules require the primal problem to be either a maximisation problem with all "less than or equal to" constraints, or a minimisation problem with all "greater than or equal to" constraints. If an LP problem does not have one of these forms, multiplying the objective function or the constraints by ( 1) and writing equality constraints as two inequality constraints will enable it to be placed in one of the forms required by the rules listed above.
Example: Dual Problem
The economical interpretation of the dual solution is of considerable importance and usefulness.
An important fact is that the dual of dual is the original model. The values of the dual variables of the dual problem are the optimal values of the original model’s variables. I f the original model has m constraints and n variables, its dual has m variables and a constraints. If the number of constraints is much greater than the number of Variables, solving the dual problem is easier. Unless the computational saving are significant, you should solve the model that interests you, not its dual. Sensitivity analysis and model modification are easier on the original model.
2.4.1 Summary
Although the primal and dual problems use the same
numerical values, the relationship between the two is not obvious. If one
model is illbehaved, then so is the other. If one model has a finite optimal
solution, then so does the others and the optimal objective function values
are equal. The are relationship between constraints in one model and variable
in the other. The interpretation of the dual constraints should help clarify
the relationship between the primal and dual problems. Solving the dual
problem brings answers to another questions than the primal solution. The
dual theory is a base for sensitivity analysis of the prices.